India has become one of the countries most affected by tobacco-related mortality. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monograph, there is sufficient evidence in humans that tobacco smoking causes cancer of the lung, oral cavity, naso-, oro- and hypo-pharynx, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, kidney (body and pelvis), ureter, urinary bladder, uterine cervix and bone marrow (myeloid leukemia).
Purpose: Purpose of the study was to compare and study the nutritional status among male smokers and non-smokers.
Methods: A cross sectional sample of 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers aged between 20 to 50 years were selected for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used. The data was collected regarding anthropometry parameters like height, weight and body Mass Index, 24 hour 3-day diet recall. Information on smoking status was collected from smoker participants. Statistical package of social sciences (SPSS, version 23) was used to analyze the data.
Results and Discussion: Most of the participants were aged between 22 to 38 years. 65% followed a sedentary lifestyle, 55% had moderate stress level, 48% of the participants worked for 8 to 10 hours, 30% of the participants smoked for their comfort, 42% participants started smoking between the age of 16 and 19 years, the number of cigarettes smoked per day ranged from 0 to 15 cigarettes. Non-smokers consumed energy (p ≤ 0.01), carbohydrates (p ≤ 0.01), Vitamin C (p ≤ 0.01), Vitamin E (p ≤ 0.01) and fibre (p ≤ 0.01) highly significantly lesser and proteins (p ≤ 0.05), fats (p ≤ 0.05) was lesser, however folate was the only nutrient which they consumed more as compared with RDA. In smokers, energy, carbohydrate, fats, vitamin C, vitamin E was highly significantly lesser, however proteins, folate and fibre was lesser when compared with RDA.
Conclusion: Macronutrient consumption was observed more in non-smokers than that of smokers. Antioxidants like Vitamin C & Vitamin E and Fibre were observed more in smokers than that of non-smokers. Folate consumption was high in non-smokers than smokers. But overall the dietary intake among both smokers and non-smokers was less than Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Indians. So, it can be concluded that balanced diet along with good micronutrient intake helps in maintaining good health.